A military wedding at Great Yarmouth and a mutiny

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Section from Nathaniel and Samuel Buck’s South West prospect of Great Yarmouth, showing St Nicholas’ Church and ships, 1741. NRO, Y/D 50/378

For couples where the groom was serving in the military, time could be of the essence to marry before his regiment moved on, or ship sailed again and many military occupations are represented in marriage licence bonds.  This is particularly true for the Archdeaconry of Norwich bonds which cover the port areas of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn.

One bond, dated 17 March 1798, relates to the marriage of John Smallcom, widower and Mary Ward, widow, in Great Yarmouth.  The bond does not say which church they married in but, at this time, only St Nicholas’ Church was licensed for marriages and the parish register confirms that John and Mary’s wedding took place there the next day.

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Marriage licence bond of John Smallcom and Mary Ward, 1798. NRO, ANW 24/72/23

The marriage licence bond leads us on to discover the history of John Smallcom’s ship, HMS Director. It appears that the ship and her crew had a short but colourful period of active service before she was broken up at Chatham in 1801 and we can only speculate whether John Smallcom was on board at the time.  In 1797, HMS Director was involved in both the Nore mutiny and the battle of Camperdown.  We know that the will of John Smallcom, of HMS Director, dated 1796, is held at The National Archives and John still lists the Director as his ship in this marriage licence bond of 1798, so he would have been aware of these events at the very least.

HMS Director was originally a 64 gun ship, designed by Sir Thomas Slade (the same man who designed HMS Victory) and built at William Cleverley’s shipyard in Gravesend. Ordered at the height of the American War of Independence in the early 1780s, by the time HMS Director was built the war was over.

In January 1796, HMS Director sailed under Captain William Bligh (of mutiny on the Bounty fame) and by 1797, she was part of the North Sea Fleet.  Her crew took part in the mutiny on the Nore when, encouraged by an earlier mutiny in the Channel Fleet at Spithead near Portsmouth, sailors at the Nore took control of their ships in May 1797.  The mutineers made many demands including payment of wage arrears, better working conditions and the removal of some of their least popular officers.

Other documents, held at the Norfolk Record Office, give eyewitness accounts of the mutiny.  Several letters sent from J.J. Gurdon, an officer of the militia at Sheerness, describe the day to day events of the mutiny as it unfolded.  In one letter, dated 29 May 1797, it is clear that he did not sympathise with the mutineers. Gurdon writes:

‘My dearest Anne, I am sorry to tell you notwithstanding the arrival of the Lords of the Admiralty & the pardon sent them yesterday, nothing whatever is done, they only made new propositions of a totally inadmissible nature.  The Lords still are here, & what is meant to be done…it is a most melancholy business & shows the total want of principle in these rascals…’

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Letter of J.J. Gurdon, 29 May 1797. NRO, KIM 14/5/4

When some demands took a political tone, including requests for Parliament to be dissolved, this frightened the British authorities who were already fighting a war with revolutionary France.  It also spooked some of the sailors and several ships pulled up their anchors and escaped the mutiny.  HMS Director was one of the last ships to surrender when the mutiny collapsed and the ringleaders were hanged.

In early October 1797, the North Sea Fleet was ordered to Great Yarmouth to resupply but news soon reached them that Dutch ships had broken out of harbour and the British were ordered to intercept them.  On 11 October 1797, HMS Director, along with other ships in the Fleet, took part in the battle of Camperdown.  It was one of the most significant encounters between British and Dutch ships during the French Revolutionary Wars.  This time, the British were victorious and captured eleven Dutch vessels.

You can look back through our previous blogs for more tales from marriage licence bonds.

 

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The Mackenzie family of Scotland and a Norfolk romance

The unusual survival of some letters, found with the marriage licence bond for Henry Bathurst and Frances Mackenzie, 14 July 1807, give us a rare insight into a mother in Scotland eagerly awaiting news of her daughter’s marriage in the parish of Thurne with Ashby and Oby, Norfolk. The letters were sent from Margaret Mackenzie, a widow of Edinburgh, to her son William Mackenzie, a surgeon in the militia who was stationed at Great Yarmouth, giving consent to her daughter’s marriage.

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Marriage licence bond for Henry Bathurst and Frances Mackenzie, 1807. NRO, ANW 24/82/85

Frances needed her mother’s consent to marry as she was only 17 years old at the time and under the age of majority which was 21 years.  In a letter, dated 6 July 1807, Margaret Mackenzie writes:

‘In Mrs Mackenzie’s letter to Jessy she did hint that a young Gentleman was paying particular attention to Fanny but I did not think much about it at the time not knowing she was serious – Yours of the 30th June mentioning all the particulars puts it beyond a doubt, and as you seem to have so high opinion of the young gentleman and at the same time agreeable to Fanny I do most freely give my consent to the marriage and sincerely wish the young couple health and happiness’.  She goes on to request news of the wedding ceremony, ‘I expect you will write me all the particulars as soon as matters are properly settled and the day fixed.  Let me know if Catherine or Frances wish to have any cloaths sent them.’

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Letter from Mrs Mackenzie to her son William, 6 July 1807. NRO, ANW 24/82/85

The parish marriage register for Thurne shows that Henry and Frances married a few days later on 16 July and that her brother, William Mackenzie, was a witness at their wedding.

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Marriage register entry for Henry Bathurst and Frances Mackenzie, 16 July 1807. NRO, PD 308/4

 

In another letter from Mrs Mackenzie to William, dated 12 July, we also learn about her hope that her son’s regiment would soon go back to Scotland and about her health and family.  Like Mrs Bennet in Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice (published only a few years after Frances Mackenzie’s wedding and which explores the social context of marriage at this time) it appears that news of her daughter’s marriage may have rapidly cured her mother’s aches and pains!  Mrs Mackenzie writes, ‘I was complaining for a few days with a rheumatism in my head but I am now quite well again’.

You can view our holdings of the Norwich Archdeaconry marriage licence bonds through our online catalogue, NROCAT (http://nrocat.norfolk.gov.uk).  Their main reference number is ANW/24 and you can search by the names of the marriage parties and by parish.  Please note that images of the documents themselves are not on NROCAT.

Look out for other blogs containing tales from other marriage licence bonds!

 

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Tales of the Great and the Not So Good

Marriage licences were often favoured by families of high social class since they allowed the couple privacy, ability to choose their parish of marriage and were faster to arrange than banns.  The marriage licence could also be a status symbol in itself, showing that the couple could afford to purchase it and although the cost of a licence was not exceptionally high, many people could not afford one.  As a result, the names of several prominent Norfolk families are included in the bonds.

One bond relates to the marriage of Philip Meadows Martineau (1872-1829) to Ann Dorothy Clarke in 1811.  The Martineau family were of Huguenot descent and Philip Meadows was a prominent member of the local French community.  He was a distinguished surgeon specialising in lithotomy, the surgical method for removing kidney, bladder and gallbladder stones which were common medical complaints in Norfolk.  Martineau was a surgeon at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital and also served as a hospital governor.

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Engraving of Bracondale Hall on the Martineau family estate. NRO, MC 2295/1

The Martineau family were Unitarians and Philip Meadows Martineau attended the Octagon Chapel in Norwich.  Following Hardwicke’s Marriage Act, 1753 (which attempted to curb secret and irregular marriages) Nonconformists had to marry in an Anglican church.  There were exemptions for Jews and Quakers but Catholics and other protestant Nonconformists, including Unitarians, were not exempt until later.  Sadly, the marriage licence bond does not tell us which church Philip and Ann Dorothy married in, which is quite common.

Martineau owned a large estate at Bracondale (the Norfolk Record Office and County Hall now occupy part of the site) and this marriage licence bond is dated around the time that he also purchased the adjacent property of Carrow Abbey.

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Marriage licence bond of Philip Meadows Martineau and Ann Dorothy Clarke, 1811. NRO, ANW 24/86/9

Another bond relates to the marriage of Ann Margaret Coke of Holkham, aged 15 years, to Thomas Anson in 1794.  Ann Margaret, born at Holkham Hall, became a painter and may have been taught by Thomas Gainsborough in Norfolk and London.  Her husband, Thomas Anson, was a wealthy politician and heir to the Shugborough estate in Staffordshire.  Since Ann Margaret was only fifteen at the time of her wedding, her father Thomas William Coke, the first Earl of Leicester, made a sworn oath of consent to her marriage which is noted on the marriage licence bond.

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Marriage licence bond of Ann Margaret Coke and Thomas Anson, 1794. NRO, ANW 24/69/33

A.M.W. Stirling recounts in his two volume work, Coke of Norfolk and his Friends, that Ann looked very young at her wedding:

‘At the wedding breakfast she looked such a child that Dean Anson said mischievously to her: “Ann, if you will run round the table, I will give you a sovereign!”  Scarcely had the words left his lips, then away went the delighted bride and, racing round the table, triumphantly claimed her reward.’

Stirling also notes that Thomas Anson, concerned about his wife’s young age, insisted that Ann sat at cards with the dowagers when attending dances which unfortunately gave her a taste for gambling!

Marriage licence bonds were not the preserve of the gentry and even those of more modest social status such as tenant farmers, trades people and military occupations are well represented in them.  This particularly became the case as the cost of marriage licences fell relative to wages.  For some couples they may even have been an aspirational choice to emulate the higher social classes and add some sparkle to their wedding day!

Obtaining a marriage licence bond was no guarantee of social standing and character. One bond relates to the marriage of James Blomfield Rush (who later became the notorious Stanfield Hall murderer) to Susannah Soames (named in the bond as Susan Soame) in May 1828.  Rush, a tenant farmer who had got himself into debt, murdered estate owner Isaac Jermy and his son at Stanfield Hall on 28 November 1848.  After a dramatic legal trial, Rush was hanged at Norwich Castle on 21 April 1849.  A crowd of over 12,000 people gathered to witness the event and the Eastern County Railway Company even ran a special train from London to Norwich for the execution.

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Lithograph of James Blomfield Rush by Sharpe, 1849. NRO, MC 63/1

Rush was no stranger to trouble. In 1835, despite being married to Susannah Soames, a woman, named either Dank or Dack, brought an action against him for breach of promise of marriage.  She claimed that she had been forced into the workhouse after Rush made her pregnant.  When the case came to court at the Norfolk Assizes in the summer of 1839, the court convicted Rush and ordered him to pay costs of over £26.

Look out for more tales from marriage licence bonds in our future blog posts.

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Did your ancestors marry by licence?

001 Crop of ANF BT Topcroft 1828

Illustration of a wedding at Topcroft, Norfolk. NRO, BT, ANF. 1828.

If you are researching your family tree and have come across an entry in a parish register which notes that your ancestors married by licence, then marriage licence bonds can be a valuable resource.  Although they do not include marriages by banns, the bonds cover a whole archdeaconry, or diocese, rather a single parish.  This can make them useful for tracing marriages of some ancestors if you do not know where the wedding took place.

A recent project at the Norfolk Record Office has made accessing some of these marriage licence bonds much easier than before!  For over a year, a group of 20 volunteers and staff have been busy indexing the Archdeaconry of Norwich marriage licence bonds, 1712-1915.  Over 20,000 records have been added to our catalogue, NROCAT, as part of the project.  The Norwich Archdeaconry bonds cover the main population centres in Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King’s Lynn and Thetford.  We also hold bonds for the Norfolk Archdeaconry and for the Norwich Consistory Court but these have not been fully indexed yet.

After Lord Hardwicke’s Marriage Act, 1753 (which clamped down on clandestine or secret and irregular marriages) there are several reasons why a marriage could take place by licence.  If one of the parties was a minor (under 21 years old) they needed parental consent to marry and had to apply for a licence.  Couples who chose to marry in a church other than their home parishes usually required one as well.

Licences were often favoured if the parties wanted to marry quickly (some were issued as late as the day of the marriage) or if a couple wanted to avoid the publicity of having banns read in church.  Perhaps it was a shotgun wedding, a second marriage, or the groom was a military man who had just disembarked from his ship at Great Yarmouth and needed to marry before he returned to sea. Non-conformists might choose to marry by licence in preference to having banns read in the Parish Church.

A marriage licence bond contained three parts.  The affidavit was a sworn statement, usually made by the bridegroom, stating that there was no legal impediment to the marriage.  The groom and a bondsman (often a relative or friend) entered into a bond agreeing that they would forfeit a sum of money if the marriage did not take place.  This penalty sum was set deliberately high to deter improper marriages.  The court which issued the licence kept the bond and affidavit and the applicant presented the marriage licence to the clergyman who was to marry the couple.  It is rare for the actual licence to survive.

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An example of one of the Norwich Archdeaconry marriage licence bonds, dated 1752, for Elisha DeHague, senior, who was Town Clerk of Norwich, 1774-1792. NRO, ANW 24/26/160.

You can view our holdings of the Norwich Archdeaconry marriage licence bonds through our online catalogue, NROCAT (http://nrocat.norfolk.gov.uk).  Their main reference number is ANW 24 and you can search by the names of the marriage parties and by parish.  Please note that images of the documents themselves are not on NROCAT.

There really is a story behind every marriage licence bond, and look out for future blog posts that show some of our favourite examples from the Norwich Archdeaconry records.

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Memories of Christmas from a German Prisoner of War

Soon after the Second World War ended German POWs were released across the country. Over 100 prisoners were released from Mousehold Camp based in Norwich. One such prisoner was Hans Dittrich who was interviewed shortly before release. Dittrich obviously appreciated Norwich as seen in an attached newspaper and gives evidence that he and his fellow German prisoners were treated decently, ‘When we leave Norwich, in two days, we shall take with us memories of many happy hours spent in the city, whose inhabitants, in spite of the damage inflicted by the war, never showed any hostility to us’. After living and serving under a fascist dictatorship, Hans very much appreciated British attitude towards democracy, in the same article he says, ‘The younger generation of us particularly have been able to see for the first time what the way of life in a real democracy is’. More evidence that prisoners were treated fairly well is highlighted in letters to his friend Mrs Statham where he invites her and some other female friends to a Christmas concert being held at the camp, visits were also permitted. Hans delightfully replied to his friend, ‘I accept with pleasure your kind invitation for Christmas Day’.

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Newscutting describing departure of German prisoners of war from Mousehold camp. NRO, MC 2386/1, 962X6

By the early summer of 1948, Hans finally arrived home after a long and difficult journey back to East Germany where his family lived. On June 10 ‘on my mother’s birthday’ a steamer carried him and other German POWs to Holland. Soon after he spent four days at a discharge camp in the British Zone before being transported to Leipzig where he and his fellow prisoners spent a miserable fortnight at a ‘so-called quarantine camp’. When Hans finally returned to the now Russian controlled Dresden, he was heartbroken by what had become of his city. He commented ‘there is to-day an area of 30 square miles of ruins. Not a single house or church from the inner city survived the raids. Over 400, 000 people lost their homes in one night and 150,000 lost their life. Only the suburbs are better off’. He acknowledged however that reconstruction despite being the hardest hit city in Germany was going along well. Meanwhile Hans lamented life under Soviet rule, arguing that life in the British zone was better and that availability of food, especially meat and fats, as well as clothing was scarce due to rationing, ‘Only children up to 5 years of age get half a pint (of milk) per day. There are children of 9-10 years who haven’t seen a banana, a pine-apple or a grape-fruit their whole life’. On clothing he described, ‘if you are lucky you will get one pair of shoes for instance every ten years or one suit every fifty years’, he had nothing to wear except some ‘new-look’ clothes, given to him by the Royal Army. Nevertheless he desired to return back to a carefree life of paying visits to relatives, writing, reading, swimming and sun bathing.

While continuing to send Mrs Statham various German stamps Hans expressed envy over her seaside holiday, ‘What a pity we Germans aren’t allowed to spend a holiday somewhere in Switzerland, Bavaria or Austria, for I love the mountains more than the seaside’. It is unlikely that Hans had time for a holiday regardless, since he was training to become a teacher, after the majority of teachers who were previous members of the Nazi Party were dismissed. Although he himself had been a Nazi member, his time in Britain likely made him a more preferable candidate to the Soviets as he took an exam for mathematics and grammar. As Statham and Hans remained in contact, he was overjoyed whenever his overseas friend sent him food parcels to him and his family, in a November letter he commented, ‘You can’t imagine what joy your parcel brought’, since they were a rare treat in Russian occupied East Germany, he said, ‘The tin of milk and the sugar my mother put away for X-Mas’. Dresden was slowly recovering meanwhile, a department store where ‘nearly everything you need’, except for meat and fat was available, but lamented that prices were too high, as a response to the black market. £3 today may seem reasonable for a pair of silk stockings, but in 1940’s war torn Germany, many people were unable to afford a decent pair of stockings for the upcoming winter. The State Opera house, re-opening with Beethoven’s Fidelis was also rebuilt but queues lasted for hours and tickets were difficult to obtain, probably because most entertainment facilities in Dresden were destroyed in the war. Hans also yearned to see English and American in the cinemas since only Russian and pre-war German films for the time being were available (or permitted) to be shown.

Shortly before Christmas of 1948, Hans had his first ‘normal’ Christmas since 1941. From 1942-1944 he spent his Christmases with the German army, 1943 ‘alone on a little outpost’ and 1945-1947 as a POW in America and Britain. The festive season brought back nostalgic memories from when he was a child, he remembered the ‘boxing days days in our nice house, lots of presents under the ten feet – high X-mas-tree, which was decorated with dozens of burning candles. And to – day, no presents, no house’. Hans remained optimistic however, commenting that he and his family were happy, healthy ‘and able to wait for better times’. Also despite receiving no presents, Hans was more than grateful for a Christmas card and Christmas wishes sent from his British friends. His Christmas was quiet, ‘not so joyful and happy as before the war perhaps’, but he was happy to be unified again with his family. To add to his happiness, the government provided extra food, particularly sugar, flour and poultry. There were no wine or nuts at the shop but Hans shrugged, ‘but we could do without them’. A small Christmas tree with some candles was erected in his house, referring back to German holiday tradition he recalled, ‘It is an old German custom to have a Christmas tree decorated with about 10-20 burning candles, nuts, apples, silver bells etc’. On boxing day however while Hans and his mother visited family members, his father was forced to work. The unusually mild winter in his home city reminded Hans of ‘dear old Norwich’ although the cold weather was the kind ‘to catch a cold and keep it for some weeks’.

Things were still far from cheerful in Dresden, despite the disbandment of the Nazi Party the Soviet government used similar mind control tactics. Of Hans’ cousins for instance was ordered to appear before the Russian police for writing in a letter to a friend, ‘We still live, but for how long?’ Thankfully he escaped to the American zone where he took up a career as a salesman in a drug shop. Many others were not so lucky however, disappearing ‘without leaving a trace’. Hans feared that these men and women were in a concentration camp which were still open, or a Russian Labour Camp. On concentration camps he commented ‘thousands of good, brave Germans, who either are completely innocent or just did not do what the Russians ordered, or who were careless enough to tell a ‘friend’ or a neighbour about their feelings, fill these subhuman camps’. Many prisoners were locked up without a trial and died in these institutions, to make matters worse family members could not get permission to see or even communicate with them. A previously healthy and strong relative of Hans who stayed in one of these camps lost so much weight that he was unable to work. He complained of the hypocrisy of the ‘Russian beasts’, when they claimed to be of a nation of high culture and democracy. He assured Mrs Statham that many Germans contrary to what the Stalinist government believed, had ‘learned from their mistakes since Hitler came to power’. Although admitting to being a member of the Nazi Party he wrote that ‘Dictatorship is the most cruel and destructive form of government one can think of’. He expressed sadly that ‘After our capitulation in 1945 we wanted to become a democracy, to pay our debts and to establish a peaceful Germany. Now we see that our dream became true, but only in the three Western Zones’. Hans was bitter that East Germany suffered ‘under the terror-regime of the Russians and the Russian-sponsored Socialist Party (SED). When Hans refused to join the SED he was fined. Expressing anger over his ‘idiotic government’ he grieved, ‘We Germans see no way out of that misery, as long as the Russians are here’ and that most of the small level of production went back to Russia and other Eastern nations. Whenever East Germany rarely got something out of Russia’s ‘friendship’ the government according to Hans cried with joy, ‘’Thank you, dear Stalin’’ at the expense of the tax payers.

Christmas 1949 seemed to improve Hans’ mood however as he received presents, food parcels, with rare goods such as chocolate, fat and milk, and Christmas cards from Britain. Once again Christmas was ‘quiet and comfortable’ and a day in which family members greeted each other. Unfortunately there was no boxing day this time as there was in Britain and Hans would soon have to return to work, this time as a carpenter. One year later in 1950, Hans after a spending his first ‘nice and quiet holiday for me since 1939, when war broke out’, observed a snowy winter. Once again changing jobs, this time he served as a store keeper. He admitted that it was an ‘interesting job, but now before X-mas we have more than enough to do and overtime work is the rule’. It seems that despite living under a Stalinist dictatorship, this did not deter East Germans from carrying out their Christmas shopping as citizens in America and Britain did.

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Letter from Hans Dittrich of Dresden to Mrs Statham of Norwich. NRO, MC 2386/9

Adjusting to life back in Germany after a long time in Norwich was difficult for Hans Dittrich, especially as his homeland was in a war torn state which had seen one dictatorship replaced by another. Nevertheless his contact with Mrs Statham and her family helped to keep his morale up, especially around the Christmas season. Though he and many of his fellow East Germans lived under the shadow of Stalin, this did not deter Christmas spirit, even in a city like Dresden which had seen much devastation during the war. Even if they were not guaranteed presents and had to depend on rations for a Christmas dinner, family and unity alone was good enough for Hans and the citizens of East Germany around the festive season.

Compiled by Rebecca Hanley, NRO research blogger.

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Driving Sheep and Pulham Pigs: Just some of the topics covered by our workshops this half term.

Hello, What a busy end to this year! We hope you have all enjoyed your various nativity plays, Christmas concerts and general festivities over the last few weeks. This half term we have had a chance to bring out some of our old workshops and to run a brand-new one.

In December, two members of staff drove out to deepest Norfolk (just past King’s Lynn to be precise) to the lovely St German’s school. They worked with the year 3/4 class in the morning and the 5/6 class in the afternoon looking at Changing Landscapes. The pupils enjoyed discovering what the surrounding fields were used for in the 1840s using the tithe apportionment for the village. This included gardens, orchards, arable and pasture. The map even highlighted a number of rectangular fields, known as driftways which were used for driving sheep and cattle to market. Surprisingly, today the fields are used solely for arable use. Next, pupils looked at the changes to the coastline for the village of Happisburgh, Norfolk. They discovered that over the course of the last 150 years the lower lighthouse and the original coastguard station had fallen into the sea. Pupils said:

I’m surprised at how much erosion there is; I really enjoyed the tracing paper [activity] because it was fascinating

I was surprised about how are [sic] country has changed through the years’

‘ I learnt that the coast from 1840 was way different from the coast 3 years ago and also it was super fun. I loved doing this’.

We are really grateful to the staff at St German’s Primary School for allowing us to run the new workshop for their pupils. This had enabled us to see where we need to make some very minor tweaks to improve the workshop for future schools. The newly-improved workshop will be available from January 2018.

We visited both Surlingham County Primary School and Rockland St Mary Primary School for our First World War workshop.  Over the summer we had worked on updating the workshop for the new academic year, so this was our first chance to see how the changes worked. Once again, pupils had a great time drawing a First World War soldier from service records of real men. This time however, pupils were able to find out about the lives of two men who fought during the First World War, and compared their experiences in the trenches, using extracts based on real letters home. Pupils also looked at the home front; finding out about the role of women in manufacturing, working on the land and nursing. Pupils were surprised to find that some of the soldiers who fought in the trenches ended up in hospitals back in Norfolk. They also discovered the role of Pulham Airbase and the introduction of the ‘Pulham Pigs’ airships.

Once again, this was the first time we had run the updated version of this workshop, so all the feedback was invaluable. We will be making a few small tweaks over the Christmas holidays, and will be ready to run it to other schools from January.

Finally, we had Marsham Primary School in as our final school workshop before the end of the year. They were looking at Norfolk in the Second World War and particularly focusing on Marsham and the surrounding parishes. In addition to our usual Second World War workshop pupils were able to look at the School Admission Registers for Burgh next Aylsham, Register of Houses in Marsham from the Invasion Committee Papers, which gives number of occupants in each to be supplied with emergency rations in case of invasion and a letter dated 2/3/1940 which gives permission for the (soldiers) to exercise on the Heath. Pupils had already studied the topic in depth and also spent time interviewing people in order to create own animation based on these oral histories. Through this project pupils were able to consider the Philosophical question ‘Who are the real losers when we go to war?’. Overall it was felt that this was a great end to their topic, Teachers said ‘The children loved handling the documents and artefacts and it has really rounded off our topic brilliantly’.

All of our updated lesson plans will be available on request after Christmas, and we are happy to tailor parts of existing workshops to suit the needs of your school. If you have any questions or want to book a workshop please don’t hesitate to ask!

Have a great Christmas and we will see you in the New Year!

 

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Canned Turkey and other Christmas Meals of the Past

As well as hanging up the Christmas Decorations, sorting out the presents, and writing those cards, thoughts often turn to food at this time of year. We are used to our Christmas turkey with all the trimmings, or a vegetarian equivalent. However, this may not always have been the case. There are a few references in the archives to Christmas meals over the years.

In the nineteenth century food may have been plentiful for some of the wealthier families living in the large country houses, and it seems that in 1835 the Lee Warner family were happy to share their provisions. The estate book of WW Lee Warner (NRO, BUL 7/5) contains a note of the meat the family gave away at Christmas. It talks about how they divided 2 sheep into joints including 2 heads, 4 legs, 4 shoulders, 4 loins, 4 necks and 4 breasts. Presumably some of the joints were already divided up, as they managed to get 4 necks from 2 sheep. The joints were then divided up even further to give out to local people, Guy Mace and boys received 1 shoulder, whilst Matthew Bales, Betty Wich, Mr Crane and Nathaniel George each received ½ breast, though it states that ‘first a small piece to be taken off for B Betts’

However, meat was not always plentiful. In Second World War Britain meat was often in short supply. This may have come as a shock to some of the American Servicemen over here fighting in the United States Army Air Force. The men were used to a fairly good diet compared to many of the British citizens, being able to get their hands on candy amongst other goods. However, the experiences of Robert Jacobs of the 93rd Bomb Group (NRO, MC 371/882/65), shows that as soon as the men were off base choices were much more limited. In his memoirs recorded in c.1985 Robert talks about how he got food poisoning from eating a canned turkey dinner in a pub near RAF Cheddington, Buckinghamshire in 1943.

Christmas dinner on the base was considerably more aimed at an American palette. The Christmas menu for the 392nd bombardment group in 1944 included roast turkey or baked ham, mashed potatoes, giblet gravy, sage dressing, creamed corn, candied sweet potatoes and creamed asparagus (NRO, MC 371/220/1, USF 4/6). For pudding men could choose between pumpkin pie or apple pie cake and fresh fruit. This could all be washed down with, beer or tomato juice and followed up with coffee.

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Christmas menu for 392nd Bomb Group. NRO, MC 371/220/1

 

Whatever you are having for Christmas dinner this year, enjoy and don’t forget to think back to the Christmas meals of the past. See you in the New Year!

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Norwich Building Control Plans Indexing Project: a Volunteer’s Musings

As someone who loves studying twentieth century British social history (and has ambitions to become an archivist!), volunteering at the Norfolk Record Office was an opportunity I couldn’t resist.

Participating in the Norwich building control plans indexing project (NRO, N/EN 12/1) is both interesting and instructive. Each volunteer is assigned a box of building plans each week of the project. Predictably, much of the assignment deals with simply transcribing a street name, the architect or building contractor involved, and whether the application was ultimately approved or denied, and on what grounds. However, while doing the transcription work, there are occasions when the details in a given plan arrest my attention. Notations about the behaviour of some of the applicants, their premature and ramshackle erections and property amendments, their attempts (or lack of) to obtain approval for their new additions from neighbouring property owners were informative relative to the building regulation practices of the day. Also, when comparing the plans it is possible to detect some notable trends, for example the push towards greater sanitation and hygiene with the introduction of indoor toilets at the turn of the twentieth century.

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Correspondence from a neighbour criticising the untidy appearance of Mr Mutimer’s shed. NRO, N/EN 12/1/1/3519

 

I am often charmed by the intricate and precise architectural drawings that communicate the ideas and ambitions for the building project. Conventionally, these drawings are made in ink on tracing paper, coated linen or a similar material, and any additional copies had to be laboriously made by hand. The development of computer-aided design may have made manual drawing almost obsolete, but something quite beautiful remains in the complex geometry of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century sketches and drawings.

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Plan of the proposed houses at Unthank Road for R.H. Flood. NRO, N/EN 12/1/3525

HW blog post 3

Plan for the proposed house and shop at Denbigh Road. NRO, N/EN 12/1/3509

 

 

This project has certainly enhanced my appreciation for building control and the many stages that an application must pass through before a building assignment can be considered for approval. I have had the opportunity to get to know directly and in a ‘special’ way an aspect of Norwich’s social and economic history, and become part of a project that will open up this compelling collection to users via the online catalogue.

Compiled by NRO Volunteer and Research Blogger, Hollie Wilson

 

 

 

 

Posted in Behind the Scenes, NRO Research Bloggers, Snapshots from the Archive | Leave a comment